Nuclear Power Plant – Understanding how it works will try to simplify and get closer nuclear power plant how it works to viewers
I have tried to explain how nuclear energy generated in nuclear reactor with 3D and 2D animation.
TOPICS COVERED IN THIS VIDEO
0:08 Nuclear power plant
0:34 Site selection
1:13 Parts of the nuclear power plant
2:34 Introduction about nuclear reactor and turbine
3:29 Principles of operation
4:46 How to control fission of uranium – 235
5:14 Nuclear reactor
5:49 Reactor Core
6:16 Pressure vessel
9:08 Coolant and Moderators
11:00 Control rods
12:53 Types of reactors
13:44 Working principles of nuclear reactor
15:37 Controlling reactor with control rods
16:63 Nuclear waste disposal
A nuclear power plant (nuclear power station) looks like a standard thermal power station with one exception. The heat source in the nuclear power plant is a nuclear reactor. As is typical in all conventional thermal power stations the heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine connected to a generator which produces electricity.
Many reactors rely on proximity to the coast to draw sea water used to cool the condenser. And the plant shouldn’t be located too far from end-users, since much electricity is lost in long-distance transports.
New reactors have not been built for many years. This increases the risks in terms of failing to meet time schedules and potentially increasing the cost. This uncertainty, though, is being gradually reduced as new plants are built.
Main parts of nuclear power plant
As you can see the nuclear power plant consist of two main buildings:
• Containment building (houses Nuclear Reactor)
• Turbine building (houses Turbo Generator)
The containment building is the key building of the nuclear island. It is an air-tight building, which houses a nuclear reactor and its pressurizer, reactor coolant pumps, steam generators, and other equipment or piping that might otherwise release fission products to the atmosphere in the event of an accident. Such buildings are usually made of steel-reinforced concrete.
The turbine building is the key building of the conventional (turbine) island. The turbine building houses a turbine, generator, condenser and other equipment, which is used for conversion thermal energy from pressurized steam to mechanical work used for drive the generator.
Also a cooling tower can be part of the nuclear power plant, but it is not necessary. Many nuclear power plants (coastal nuclear power plants) do not cool the cooling water via cooling towers.
Nuclear reactors operate on the principle of nuclear fission, the process in which a heavy atomic nucleus splits into two smaller fragments. The nuclear fragments are in very excited states and emit neutrons, other subatomic particles, and photons. The emitted neutrons may then cause new fissions, which in turn yield more neutrons, and so forth. Such a continuous self-sustaining series of fissions constitutes a fission chain reaction. A large amount of energy is released in this process, and this energy is the basis of nuclear power systems.
How to control fission of uranium – 235
Slow neutrons strike nuclei of uranium-235, causing the nuclei to fission, or split, and release fast neutrons. The fast neutrons are absorbed or slowed by the nuclei of a graphite moderator (control rodes), which allows just enough slow neutrons to continue the fission chain reaction at a constant rate.
There are a large number of ways in which a nuclear reactor may be designed and constructed; many types have been experimentally realized. Over the years, nuclear engineers have developed reactors with solid and liquid fuels, thick- and no-reflectors, forced cooling circuits and natural conduction or convection heat-removal systems, and so on. Most reactors, however, have certain basic components.
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Create: Hrvoje Čočić
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